Opium Drug Plant

The production methods have not changed since ancient times. Through selective breeding of the Papaver somniferum plant, the content of the phenanthrene alkaloids morphine, codeine, and to a lesser extent thebaine has been greatly increased. In modern times, much of the thebaine, which often serves as the raw material for the synthesis for oxycodone , hydrocodone , hydromorphone , and other semisynthetic opiates, originates from extracting Papaver orientale or Papaver bracteatum .